What will the population of these 40 countries be in 2030?


​One-quarter of a billion people live outside their home countries, according to the Council on Foreign Relations. A full 10% of those individuals are refugees fleeing violence, persecution, hunger, and other threats. This record level of displacement has significant effects on communities, national economies, and social services around the world as populations dwindle in some countries and spike (sometimes very quickly) in others.

At first glance, moves to harden national borders may be read as xenophobia or the fear or hatred of anything foreign or culturally strange. A deeper look, however, suggests that the influx of minority groups into places like the U.K. and the United States may trigger “white fear,” or the concept that demographic changes may stir fears of status change among socioeconomic groups or possibly even the end of a majority. Immigration played into the Brexit vote, while  In the United States, the Trump administration has drastically reduced admissions of refugees, canceled DACA, and terminated Temporary Protected Status designations for Sudan, Haiti, and Nicaragua—in addition to instating a Muslim ban.

Of course, migration isn't the only factor affecting population growth. Birth and death rates, access to education, social services, family planning services, employment, and women's participation in the labor market all contribute to ebbs and flows of a country's population—proving the world is a complicated place and a difficult one to forecast.

Understanding how and why people move can help bring understanding to some larger geopolitical issues. For example, while Brexit can be seen as a protest against open-ended refugee and migrant-acceptance policies, the reason migrants wanted to go to the U.K. in the first place is that they feel they can get a shot at a better life there than they did at home. Similarities can be found in refugees' stories in every country.

With the 2019 world population estimated at 7.7 billion and estimated forecasts for 2030 reaching 8.5 billion people, Stacker took a closer look at how country's populations are changing around the world. We analyzed data from the United Nations Population Division to determine how country populations will change by 2030. Stacker specifically looked at population predictions of 40 nations: the top 10 nations by population, the bottom 10 by population, the top 10 by projected population growth, and the bottom 10 by projected population growth.

We evaluated 2019 population estimates and 2030 population projections for all 195 member and non-member observer states of the United Nations. From there, we determined the countries projected to be biggest, smallest, fastest-growing, and fastest-shrinking by 2030—including the 10 highest-ranked countries for each criterion.

#7 biggest population by 2030: Brazil
- 2030 population projection: 223.85 million
- 2019 population estimate: 211.05 million
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 6.07%


Brazil is dealing with the aftermath of a corruption scandal that saw the impeachment and removal of its president, a Summer Olympics that helped to precipitate an economic crisis, and runaway inflation and unemployment. A member of BRICS, the supranational organization comprising Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa—which are meant to be the emerging economies best positioned to lead the world economy by 2050—Brazil’s recent recession has led many to reconsider the future potential of South America’s largest country.

Japan's purchase of the Senkaku Islands from the Kurihara family, 2012
The Japanese government acted in 2012 to exert its sovereignty over the Senkaku Islands, which are claimed by China and Taiwan, by buying the uninhabited territory from the Kurihara family for 2.1 billion yen, which works out at $23.6 million in 2019 money. The deal didn't go down at all well with the governments of China and Taiwan, and triggered demonstrations in both countries.

The Burgraviate of Nuremberg's purchase of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from Emperior Sigismund, 1417

Back in 1417 the ruler of the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, an affluent territory in what is now Bavaria, Germany, parted with 400,000 Hungarian gold guilders to acquire the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which was located in modern-day northeastern Germany. The purchase paved the way for the formation of the Kingdom of Prussia. The picture shows a model of the Margraviate capital Berlin in 1480.

#9 biggest population by 2030: Ethiopia
- 2030 population projection: 144.94 million
- 2019 population estimate: 112.08 million
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 29.32%


Ethiopia is the largest landlocked nation in the world by population and the second largest in Africa. The home of some of the oldest human remains to be found, Ethiopia is thought to be the cradle of humanity. The nation is currently crushed by ethnic violence, the aftermath of a destructive war with Eritrea, and droughts in 2011 that led to widespread famine.

America's 'purchase' of Guantanamo Bay from Cuba, 1903

America's temporary control of Cuba came to an end in 1902. The following year, the United States took out a lease on Guantanamo Bay, renting the territory in perpetuity for an annual payment of $2,000 in gold, which is $57,000 today, though the amount was raised to $4,085 in 1974. These days Guantanamo Bay is best-known for being the site of the notorious detention camp of the same name.

What will the population of these 40 countries be in 2030?

​One-quarter of a billion people live outside their home countries, according to the Council on Foreign Relations. A full 10% of those individuals are refugees fleeing violence, persecution, hunger, and other threats. This record level of displacement has significant effects on communities, national economies, and social services around the world as populations dwindle in some countries and spike (sometimes very quickly) in others.

At first glance, moves to harden national borders may be read as xenophobia or the fear or hatred of anything foreign or culturally strange. A deeper look, however, suggests that the influx of minority groups into places like the U.K. and the United States may trigger “white fear,” or the concept that demographic changes may stir fears of status change among socioeconomic groups or possibly even the end of a majority. Immigration played into the Brexit vote, while  In the United States, the Trump administration has drastically reduced admissions of refugees, canceled DACA, and terminated Temporary Protected Status designations for Sudan, Haiti, and Nicaragua—in addition to instating a Muslim ban.

Of course, migration isn't the only factor affecting population growth. Birth and death rates, access to education, social services, family planning services, employment, and women's participation in the labor market all contribute to ebbs and flows of a country's population—proving the world is a complicated place and a difficult one to forecast.

Understanding how and why people move can help bring understanding to some larger geopolitical issues. For example, while Brexit can be seen as a protest against open-ended refugee and migrant-acceptance policies, the reason migrants wanted to go to the U.K. in the first place is that they feel they can get a shot at a better life there than they did at home. Similarities can be found in refugees' stories in every country.

With the 2019 world population estimated at 7.7 billion and estimated forecasts for 2030 reaching 8.5 billion people, Stacker took a closer look at how country's populations are changing around the world. We analyzed data from the United Nations Population Division to determine how country populations will change by 2030. Stacker specifically looked at population predictions of 40 nations: the top 10 nations by population, the bottom 10 by population, the top 10 by projected population growth, and the bottom 10 by projected population growth.

We evaluated 2019 population estimates and 2030 population projections for all 195 member and non-member observer states of the United Nations. From there, we determined the countries projected to be biggest, smallest, fastest-growing, and fastest-shrinking by 2030—including the 10 highest-ranked countries for each criterion.

#8 biggest population by 2030: Bangladesh
- 2030 population projection: 178.99 million
- 2019 population estimate: 163.05 million
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 9.78%


The 92nd-largest country by area, Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated nations in the world. Bordered by India on two sides and Myanmar on the third, the nation sits largely in the Ganges Delta on the Bay of Bengal. The nation formed as the result of a war of secession with Pakistan. A relatively poor country, Bangladesh recently has been racked by the Rohingya refugee crisis, runaway corruption, and terrorism.

France's purchase of Corsica from the Republic of Genoa, 1768
After the people of Corsica rebelled during the 1750s against Genoa, which had ruled the Mediterranean island since 1284, the Genoese enlisted the military assistance of the French. The revolt was quelled and Genoa was issued with a hefty bill that it couldn't pay. King Louis XV arranged the acquisition of Corsica in 1768 in lieu of the debt and it duly became a territory of France.

#2 biggest population by 2030: China

- 2030 population projection: 1.46 billion
- 2019 population estimate: 1.43 billion
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 2.13%


The emergence of China as a free-market economy changed the dynamics of the global market. With a large, cheap workflow, ready access to raw material and component sources, and lax labor laws, China was prepared to offer lower manufacturing costs to the world’s multinational businesses. This influx of cash allowed China to take a more active role in international financing and politics, presenting a potential competitor for the United States’ global leadership.

The UK's 'purchase' of Hong Kong from China, 1898
Not a purchase as such, the British government negotiated a 99-year lease of Hong Kong in 1898. The contract was signed in Beijing (known as Peking at the time) by China's Li Hongzhang and British diplomat Claude MacDonald, who was convinced the U.K. would never have to hand back the territory. Proving the British official wrong, Hong Kong of course reverted to Chinese sovereignty in 1997. A replica of the lease agreement is pictured here.

Belgium's purchase of the Congo from King Leopold II, 1908

During the 1880s Belgium's King Leopold II, along with a syndicate of investors, gained control of the Congo from tribal rulers and went on to rule his African colony with unimaginable brutality, enslaving much of the population, who were forced to work on the territory's numerous rubber plantations. International pressure eventually forced the merciless monarch to give up the colony and it was sold to the Belgian government in 1908 for the equivalent of $63 million in today's money.

France's purchase of Bourges and Dun from
Odo Arpinus, 1097-1101


Countries have been buying up sovereign territory since the medieval period. Sometime between 1097 and 1101 the Viscount of Bourges Odo Arpinus sold Bourges and Dun in what is now central France to the king of France for 60,000 pounds or shillings. Historians have suggested the viscount offloaded the territory either to fund a Holy Land crusade venture or because he had no children to bequeath it to.

America's purchase of the Danish West Indies from Denmark, 1916
The most recent of America's territorial purchases, the Danish West Indies was acquired in 1916 for a total of $25 million in gold, which is $588 million today when adjusted for inflation. The territory, which consists of three Caribbean islands, was renamed the U.S. Virgin Islands. Interestingly, the U.S. agreed to recognize Denmark's sovereignty of Greenland as part of the deal.

America's purchase of southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico from Mexico, 1853
Mexico sold yet more territory to the United States in 1853 in what became known as the Gadsden Purchase, which is named after James Gadsden (pictured), the U.S. ambassador to Mexico at the time. In desperate need of hard cash, the Mexican government relinquished 29,670 square miles of territory in what is now Arizona and southwestern New Mexico for $10 million, which is $333 million in today's money.

Russia's purchase of Estonia, Livonia, Ingria and southeast Finland from Sweden, 1721
Russia bagged Estonia, Livonia, Ingria and southeast Finland in 1721 as part of the Treaty of Nystad, which ended the Great Northern War that had raged since 1700. Tsar Peter the Great paid King Frederick I of Sweden two million silver rubles for the territories and handed over most of Finland in return. The signing of the treaty is depicted in this etching by Peter Schenk the Younger.

Canada's purchase of Rupert's Land and the Northwest Territories from the Hudson's Bay Company, 1870

The Dominion of Canada got in on the action with the purchase of Rupert's Land, which included modern-day Manitoba, the lion's share of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southern Nunavut and northern parts of Ontario and Quebec, as well as the Northwest Territories. The vendor was the Hudson's Bay Company. The sale was finalized in 1870 and cost the nation 300,000 pounds, a figure that translates to just $44 million in 2019 money.

#6 biggest population by 2030: Pakistan
- 2030 population projection: 262.96 million
- 2019 population estimate: 216.57 million
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 21.42%


The 33rd-largest nation by area, Pakistan is another densely populated country. The only country to be formed in the name of Islam, Pakistan derived from the Muslim partition of British India. Pakistan would split into West Pakistan, which is the modern-day Pakistan, and East Pakistan, which is Bangladesh today, following the 1971 civil war.

#3 biggest population by 2030: United States

- 2030 population projection: 349.64 million
- 2019 population estimate: 329.07 million
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 6.25%


While China has become the world’s largest manufacturing and global trade nation, the United States remains the world’s economic and military leader. Bolstered by being the only major nation to escape World War II largely unscathed, the United States positioned itself to be the “policeman of the world,” serving as the fount of international cooperation and leading the charge against nations that do not fit the U.S.’s image of the world. However, the Trump Administration’s “America First” policies of isolationism is threatening to force some U.S. global partners and allies to look elsewhere for leadership.

#4 biggest population by 2030: Indonesia
- 2030 population projection: 299.20 million
- 2019 population estimate: 270.63 million
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 10.56%


Comprising over 17,000 islands, Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago nation and largest nation by either land area or population to have a predominately Muslim population. Its capital of Jakarta is the second-most populous urban area in the world, following Tokyo, and its abundance of natural resources has made Indonesia a leader in global commerce.

The Republic of Kiribati's purchase of land on Vanua Levu from Fiji, 2014
The Republic of Kiribati, a sovereign state in Micronesia in the central Pacific ocean, bought land on the island of Vanua Levu from Fiji in 2014 as a potential refuge for when climate change submerges the Pacific islands that the Kiribati people currently live on. Kiribati's president Anote Tong bought 20 square kilometers of land on Vanua Levu, which lies 2,000 kilometers away from Kiribati, at a cost of $8.77 million for the 110,000 Kiribati people who live on these endangered islands.

America's purchase of Alaska from Russia, 1867

Back to the U.S. After a period of negotiation with Russian diplomat Eduard de Stoeckl, Secretary of State William Seward secured the purchase of Alaska in 1867 for $7.2 million, which is $125 million today. Initially derided by some as "Seward's Folly," the acquisition paid off handsomely when huge quantities of gold were discovered in the Last Frontier in 1896, sparking the Klondike Gold Rush. Shown here is the actual check used to pay for the territory.

America's 'purchase' of the Panama Canal and surrounding land from Panama, 1903
In 1903 the newly independent nation of Panama and the United States signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, which granted the American government a perpetual lease on the Panama Canal and the surrounding land in exchange for a payment of $10 million and annual rent of $250,000, which is $292 million and $7.3 million in today's money respectively. In the end, the United States agreed to terminate the lease and the territory was handed back to Panama in 1999.

France's purchase of Saint-Barthélemy from Sweden, 1878
Exasperated with the cost of administering Saint-Barthélemy, the Swedish King Oscar II sold the Caribbean island, which is now a luxury tourist destination, to the French in 1878. In total, the purchase set the French government back 400,000 francs, which based on the price of gold at the time is around $5.2 million today.

#5 biggest population by 2030: Nigeria
- 2030 population projection: 262.98 million
- 2019 population estimate: 200.96 million
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 30.86%


Nigeria is the largest nation by population in Africa. The nation also has the third-largest concentration of young people in the world. Nigeria is Africa’s largest economy and largely is seen as being among the next economies to emerge as drivers of the future global economy. The nation’s low human development score, however, suggests severe flaws in its educational, economic, health care, and personal security protections.

#1 biggest population by 2030: India

- 2030 population projection: 1.50 billion
- 2019 population estimate: 1.37 billion
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 10.04%

The world’s most populous nation, India is plagued by overcrowding, weak infrastructure, and high levels of poverty, gender inequality, food insecurity, and pollution. The nation also has unresolved territorial disputes with China and Pakistan, religious and caste-related violence, Naxalite insurgencies, and a separatist movement in northeastern India. Despite this, the nation has a growing middle class, an active tradition of democracy, and a steady—if slow—push toward modernization.

Revolutionary study reveals all of human race descended from Botswanan woman 200,000 years ago

https://braincharm.com/2019/11/06/revolutionary-study-reveals-all-of-human-race-descended-from-botswanan-woman-200000-years-ago/?utm_source=AOLPartnershi

Researchers believe they have discovered the place where humanity started and it seems that we all have originated from the same place — Botswana.
In the new study, the revelations include looking at genetic information of over 1,2000 people across African populations — which led them to find that the genes preserved in people’s DNA first emerged in the area.The data was based on ‘mitochondrial DNA’ (mtDNA) which is passed down through females.
While scientists already at large agree that modern humans (homo sapiens) came from Africa about 200,000 years but until now, it has been unclear which continent we first came from.

The new information clashes with the limited evidence based on fossils which suggested our ancestors first emerged in East Africa.

Vannessa Hayes, anthropologist and senior author of the newspaper, said in a press conference that the findings suggested “everyone walking around today” could trace their mitochondrial DNA back to the area.
Thanks to new research, it has been revealed that for 70,000 years, the first humans thrived in the area now known as Botswana, which was originally a wetland south of Zambezi River.

But due to climate change, what was once the largest lake on the continent is now known as the Kalahri Desert.

This means that the people who lived there were forced to migrate to other places between 130,000 and 110,000 years ago.
It is believed that this move began the development of genetic, ethnic and cultural diversity.

But researchers a few years back claimed to have discovered a footprint in Crete, Greece, that may fundamentally alter the narrative when it comes to early human evolution. It is very possible our ancestors were in modern Europe far earlier than we initially believed.
Ever since researchers discovered fossils of our early ancestors in South and East Africa in the middle of the 20th century, the history of humanity as been concrete.

America's purchase of the Louisiana Territory from France, 1803
In 1803 the U.S. made the first of many territorial acquisitions when the burgeoning country bought 820,000 square miles of territory from France for a bargain $15 million, the equivalent of $340 million in today's money. The land that made up the purchase covers a vast swathe of modern-day America including Louisiana, Arkansas, Kansas, Nebraska and Montana.

Germany's purchase of the Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands and Palau from Spain, 1899
A year after giving up sovereignty of Cuba, Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines, the government of Spain came to the realization it could also no longer defend and administer its territories in the Pacific. As a consequence, these islands were sold to the German government for 25 million pesetas, which is around $88 million in 2019 money. This image shows the official transfer ceremony.

Denmark-Norway's purchase of Saint Croix from France, 1733
Now part of the U.S. Virgin Islands, which features later in our round-up, the Caribbean island of Saint Croix was purchased from France in 1733 by the Danish West India Company, which was acting on behalf of the state of Denmark-Norway. The company paid a total of 750,000 livres for the territory.

America's purchase of the Philippines from Spain, 1898

The U.S. absorbed even more territory in 1898 following the Spanish-American War. Emerging victorious from the short-lived conflict, the U.S. was ceded Guam and Puerto Rico by Spain, granted temporary control of Cuba and gained the Philippines in exchange for $20 million, the equivalent of $618 million today. The transfers were formalized in the Treaty of Paris, which was signed on Dec. 10, 1898. But the Philippines did not recognize this deal, which led to the Philippine-America War. America won, but in 1935 the nation was granted commonwealth status. After a period of Japanese occupation during World War II, the Philippines was granted independence by the U.S. in 1946.

#1 biggest population by 2030: India

- 2030 population projection: 1.50 billion
- 2019 population estimate: 1.37 billion
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 10.04%


The world’s most populous nation, India is plagued by overcrowding, weak infrastructure, and high levels of poverty, gender inequality, food insecurity, and pollution. The nation also has unresolved territorial disputes with China and Pakistan, religious and caste-related violence, Naxalite insurgencies, and a separatist movement in northeastern India. Despite this, the nation has a growing middle class, an active tradition of democracy, and a steady—if slow—push toward modernization.

America's purchase of Cagayan Sulu, Sibutu, the Spratly Islands and Scarborough Shoal from Spain, 1900
A number of Filipino islands were left out of the Treaty of Paris due to an administrative blunder and remained under the sovereignty of Spain. The discrepancy was addressed by the signing of a new treaty in 1900 and the territories were sold to the U.S. for $100,000, which works out at $3 million today.

Prussia's purchase of Saxe-Lauenburg from Austria, 1865
As part of the Gastein Convention, a treaty signed by Austria and Prussia in 1865, Austria sold the territory of Saxe-Lauenburg in present-day northern Germany to Prussia for 2.5 million Danish rigsdalers. Austria didn't hold on to the territory for long, however, losing the land a year later following the nation's expulsion from the German Confederation. The freezing out of Austria was orchestrated by Prussian statesman Otto von Bismarck (pictured), who became Germany's first chancellor.

Scotland's purchase of the Firth of Clyde, Hebrides, Isle of Man and Kintyre from Norway, 1266

Eager to expand Scotland's territory and end the nation's conflict with Norway, King Alexander III paid King Magnus IV 4,000 merks plus an annuity of 100 merks to gain sovereignty over the Firth of Clyde and Kintyre as well the Hebrides islands and the Isle of Man. The deal was formalized by the Treaty of Perth, which was signed July 2, 1266.

#2 biggest population by 2030: China

- 2030 population projection: 1.46 billion
- 2019 population estimate: 1.43 billion
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 2.13%


The emergence of China as a free-market economy changed the dynamics of the global market. With a large, cheap workflow, ready access to raw material and component sources, and lax labor laws, China was prepared to offer lower manufacturing costs to the world’s multinational businesses. This influx of cash allowed China to take a more active role in international financing and politics, presenting a potential competitor for the United States’ global leadership.

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The UK's purchase of Frederiksnagore and Dansborg from Denmark, 1839
As the British government tightened its grip on India, the powers that be bought Frederiksnagore (modern-day Serampore) in 1839 from Denmark and followed up the purchase with the acquisition of the fortified Danish outpost of Dansborg (Tranquebar today) in 1845. The monies paid amounted to some 125,000 pounds, which translates to $18.7 million in 2019.

America's purchase of northwestern Missouri from American Indian tribes, 1836
Having successfully bagged the Louisiana Territory and Florida, the U.S. government negotiated with local American Indian tribes in 1836 to acquire 3,149 square miles of land in the modern-day northwest corner of Missouri. The so-named Platte Purchase cost $7,500, a paltry $207,000 in today's money.

#10 biggest population by 2030: Russia
- 2030 population projection: 143.35 million
- 2019 population estimate: 145.87 million
- Projected population change 2019-2030: -1.73%


Russia is the largest nation by area and the tenth-largest by population, which suggests the country is having deep logistical problems related to an insufficient workforce distribution and lopsided and economy. Russia's inhospitably cold climate, weak economy, and aggressive international sanctions have caused the nation to be one of the biggest population losers. In fact, the two years from 2013 to 2015 were the first years of natural population growth for post-Soviet Russia. 

#3 biggest population by 2030: United States

- 2030 population projection: 349.64 million
- 2019 population estimate: 329.07 million
- Projected population change 2019-2030: 6.25%


While China has become the world’s largest manufacturing and global trade nation, the United States remains the world’s economic and military leader. Bolstered by being the only major nation to escape World War II largely unscathed, the United States positioned itself to be the “policeman of the world,” serving as the fount of international cooperation and leading the charge against nations that do not fit the U.S.’s image of the world. However, the Trump Administration’s “America First” policies of isolationism is threatening to force some U.S. global partners and allies to look elsewhere for leadership.

Please See More Estimated population increases below on this web page .....

America's purchase of Florida from Spain, 1819
The U.S. government got out its check book again in 1819 with the purchase of Florida from Spain. Secured in the Adams-Onís Treaty, the territory encompasses present-day Florida and southern parts of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. All in all, the purchase cost the U.S. $5 million, which is just $101 million in today's terms.

West Germany's purchase of Elten, Selfkant and Suderwick from the Netherlands, 1963
The Netherlands annexed just under 27 square miles of German territory in 1949 as compensation for damage inflicted on the country during World War II. The land, which included the villages of Elten and Suderwick, remained under Dutch control until 1963 when West Germany shelled out 280 million marks, $558 million in today's money, to get it back.

The Soviet Union's purchase of Jäniskoski-Niskakoski from Finland, 1947
This territory consisting of 69 square miles in modern-day northwestern Russia near the Finnish and Norwegian borders was sold to the Soviet Union in 1947 for 700 million Finnish marks, which is $48 million in today's money. The land was sold so that the Soviets could rebuild a hydroelectric plant that would benefit both nations.

Land traded by countries through the ages

President Trump's recent idea to buy Greenland may seem ridiculous, but many countries, particularly the U.S., have purchased sovereign territory over the years. In fact, in 1916 when America bought the Caribbean islands that we now know as the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark the U.S. actually agreed as part of the deal that Greenland would fall within the Kingdom of Denmark.

Click through for 30 other examples of nations buying all, or parts of, other nations.


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The UK's purchase of Singapore from the Sultan of Johor and the Temenggong Abdu’r Rahman, 1819
Singapore became a de facto British possession in 1819 when Stamford Raffles (pictured) signed a treaty with the Temenggong Abdu’r Rahman and the Sultan of Johor to purchase the territory for the British East India Company. The sultan received an annuity of 5,000 Spanish dollars, while the Temenggong was awarded a yearly payment of 3,000 Spanish dollars.

Pakistan's purchase of Gwadar from Muscat and Oman, 1958
Gwadar was an overseas territory of Muscat and Oman for 200 years. A small enclave, the port city was surrounded by Pakistan and in 1958 the government of Muscat and Oman agreed to sell the territory to Pakistan for $3 million, which is $27 million in today's money, following pressure from both local inhabitants and the Pakistani government.

France's purchase of the Dauphiné de Viennois from Humbert II of Viennois, 1349

The Dauphiné de Viennois, an ancient feudal state in modern-day southeastern France, was acquired by King Philip VI of France in 1349 from the heavily indebted and heirless Humbert II of Viennois, who received a lump sum of 300,000 guilders and a generous pension in return. As a result of the purchase, the heir to the French throne was thereafter known as the Dauphin ("Dolphin").

America's purchase of Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah from Mexico, 1848
In 1848 the U.S. government signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo with Mexico, ending the Mexican-American War. As outlined in the treaty, the U.S. agreed to pay Mexico $15 million – the equivalent of $487 million today – and settle the claims of American citizens against Mexico in exchange for 525,000 square miles of land spanning modern-day Arizona, California, Nevada and Utah.

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